Archive for February 22nd, 2022

February 22, 2022

The Canals of France !

After having spent some times in canals in Paris, Brittany, and the Toulouse area I like to bring these back into my blog with an introductory post on them. This will be in my black and white series,no pictures. Therefore, here is my take on the canals of France! Hope you enjoy them as I.

What is a canal ? It is a course of artificial water created by man with the aim of communicating two rivers or two seas fed by a river, stream, or water sources that it needs to keep. And of course, France have plenty of them. I like to tell you a bit on them as we have taken boat rides in some. The Canals are concentrated in the Center, East, North to feed Paris, Also, in Brittany, and Languedoc. Some are still use for river transport such as the Canal du Rhône et Rhin , and others are more touristic like the Bretons canals. Today, the network has more than 7 000 km but in 1970 there were 12 000 km !

You have the canals of Languedoc and the Sud Ouest (southwest) such as the Canal du Midi (great one), canal latéral à la Garonne (nice) , and the canal du Rhône à Séte. In Brittany/Bretagne you have the Canal de Nantes à Brest (great one), Canal d’Ille et Rance, and the Canal de la Vilaine. In the Centre-Bourgogne (center burgundy) we have the Canal de Berry, Canal de la Briare, canal latéral à la Loire, canal de Bourgogne , Canal du Nivernais, canal du Centre ,and canal d’Orléans.

We continue in the Est (East) with the Canal d’Est, canal du Rhône au Rhin, canal de la Marne au Rhin, canal de la Marne à la Saône, canal latéral à la Marne, canal de l’Aisne à la Marne, and canal des Ardennes. In the North (Nord) we have the Canal de la Sambre à l’Oise, Canal Saint-Quentin, canal de la Somme, canal de Picardie, and canaux Flamands. And by Paris, we have the canal de l’Ourcq, canal Saint Martin, and canal Saint Denis.

We have a bit of history as to who were the precursors of these canals and we start with Leonardo de Vinci that started as in others the principals of the canal from Florence to the sea. He was followed by Adam de Craponne native of Salon de Provence but Italian who in 1554 dug up a canal of irrigation between Durance and the lake of Berre ; he was assassinated before doing his next project a canal between the basins of the Loire and the Saône. We follow on these great men of canals with Maximilien de Béthune , duke of Sully after the wars of religion he helps on the Canal de la Briare, Follow up with Pierre-Paul Riquet he starts the Canal des Deux Mers he died in ruins before missing the last 4 km of his work, We go on with Charles-Louis de Freycinet he helps the ideas of canals and the modernation when he fixe the lenght of them with a peniche boat from the north called the Freycinet.

You have the great dates in the construction of canals such as in the 15C with the invention of airlocks in Italy, By the 16C we see these in France on the Vie et Vilaine first irrigation canal in Provence. In 1642 the opening of the canal de Briare first diving reach canal. In 1681 the opening of the Canal du Midi, In the 19C we see the development of canals on the plan of Becquey and Freycinet as well as the coming of the railroad. In the 20C we see the modernisation of boat making on the first half of the century and then decline due to the highway trafic, In the years 1970’s we see the beginning of river tourism that save the canals, In 1991 was the creation of the navigable ways of France to manage the work on these canals, this is the VNF, webpage;

The trades of this fascination with canals are the lock keeper to insure the passage of boats. The Hauler to pull a boat by the river banks,with odds jobs. The sailor that with time live with the boats and even bring his family and also the wife becomes a sailor ! Along the canal you have the construction of the reach extended between two locks with a variable length. Then you have the locks, like a hydraulic elevator/lift that allows the passage of the boats. The gates that are varied and serve to monitor the rise of waters . The nozzle with a pointed angle that is held by the lock when closed. The bottom radier that is the beton part covering the bottom of the canal as foundation. The aces when the gate is open the boat enters here to wait the level of water reach the level of the anterior. The sidewalks are the lateral walls of the lock to help resiste the force of the water. The bollards with a cylindrical form of a mushroom help to tight in the boats,and help them descent and ascend the lock. The weir helps to evacuate the exterior of the canal with too much water. The house of the locksmen, there is one on each lock sometimes two. They tell the name of the next lock as well as the name of the canal and lock and the distance to the next one. The towpath once for the men and horses pulling the boat today is a promenade for pedestrians and cyclist as well as maintenance of the banks of the canals. The trees, bordering the canal planted for economic reasons to aspire the humidity, stop water mirrors, and shade as well as aesthetic.

There has been some wonderful innovations such as the airlock that allows the navigation both ways with an elevator to raise or lower the level of water and carry the boats onwards, The lock ladder that allows to go thru high slopes like the one in Fonséranes on the canal du Midi, seven locks for a height difference of 25 meters ! The tunnels with the first one in 1679 on the Canal du Midi, 165 meters long with a vault of 8 meters ! The first bridge canal was the Répudre in the Canal du Midi. You see a good example on the pont canal de Briare done in 1896 and allows the canal latéral to go over the Loire river on a distance of 662 meters. The inclined plane ; a ferry attached to a trolley which rolls on rails makes the boats go up and down along an inclined plane, example at Arzwiller on the canal de la Marne au Rhin built in 1969 replaces 19 locks with 45 meters of height difference !

The pont canal de la Briare was done in 1890 joining the canal latéral de la Loire with that of the canal de Briare, Of course, done the Canal de Nantes à Brest long of 360 km with 236 locks (not done them all!) linking four rivers , the Loire, Vilaine, Aulne and Blavet, Also helps linking 8 rivers such as the Erdre, Oust, Blavet, etc, It ends at 184 meters below the sea level and was decided to be done by Napoléon in 1806 to link the arsenals of Nantes, Lorient, and Brest, Work stopped when Napoléon lost but took off again in 1822 until 1842. The Canal Saint Martin in Paris from the basin of the Villette to the Seine river for 4,5 km including 2 km underground and 9 locks with a height difference of 25 meters. The work was decided by Napoléon and finished in 1825. On the basin of the Arsenal is where the wells of the Bastille built by Charles V, it is the most important pleasure boat marina in France ! The Arsenal was done in 1806 !

Different earlier boats were used for these canals such as the chaland, sapine, flûte de bourgogne, bé de cane, coureau , and choche d’eau. I have ridden the chaland on the Loire river built to the identical old model.

The project Babel on the canals of France good info in French:

The Canals of Bretagne in French:

The city of Paris on its canals in French :

The Paris tourist office on the canals of Paris:

The official canal du Midi in French:

There you go folks, a beautiful way to see the countryside of my belle France! Also, near the canals are wonderful monuments to see and enjoy by all. One nice activity to do and hope you have enjoy the post as I.

And remember, happy travels, good health, and many cheers to all!!

February 22, 2022

The inventors of landscapes !!

We live by the pictures/portraits of today but how they came into being so popular and use today by all. Let me indulge into my belle France and tell you the story of some of the precursors of this movement ; you might be surprise. This is for the history I like in my blog; will be in my black and white series ,no pictures.

The 19C with the Romantism the passage enter brutal to our society ; nature inspired painters and writers that for the first time told us about forests, fields, gardens, mountains, the sea coast to the look and sound of light and the seasons, In rupture with their academic world, the painters come out of their shops with their colors tables and pencils in hand to do their art in the open air.

We have Gustave Courbet meeting again his birthplace region in Franche-Comté and vallée de la Loue in Ornans. We follow the steps of Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Théodore Rousseau and Jean-François Millet leave Paris to go to Barbizon, The Impressionist movement is born.

Paul Gauguin takes refuge in Bretagne and take out picturesques views of Pont Aven. Others take the colors and picturesque views of the south of France, Vincent Van Gogh show his genious at Arles ; Paul Cezanne take his passion for the montagne Sainte-Victoire, André Derain and Henri Matisse invent the Fauvism thanks to the eclats of lights of Collioure.

In 50 years, the art and literature meet their revolution. The writers take long away from Paris , Victor Hugo tell us about the Vallée du Rhin and the cirque de Gavarnie. When the 20C arrived the Belle Epoque meets the fashion in the beach resorts. Marcel Proust write a good portion of his work La Recherche du temps perdu in the Grand Hotel of Cabourg, In Etretat, when the casino is full , saw the birth of one of the most celebrated personage the thief Arséne Lupin spiritual son of Maurice Leblanc.

During the summer of 1843 Victor Hugo travel in the Pyrénées with Juliette Drouet and comes to the cirque de Gavarnie, and the cascade of Arroudet, the chaos of Coumély and its menacing rocks fallen on the river. He said «  It is a mountain, a wall at the same time, it is a building the most mysterious of the mysterious of architects, the Colosseum of nature »

Paul Cézanne immortalise the montagne Saint Victoire. A child of the country of Aix he was attracted to this mountain. He gave it 44 oils paintings and 43 aquarelles ! After him, the mountain also attracted Picasso and Kandinsky. Today the montagne Saint Victoire welcome walkers that come in family to observe nature and get some air, and get lost in the always beautiful colors of Cézanne.

Early in the 19C Cabourg was a village of fishermen in Normandie, In 1853, a big beach was created commonly called the queen of beaches , A thermal station was created attracting several artists theater directors, and celebrities such as Théophile Gautier. The first casino was done as the Grand Hotel de la Plage, Marcel Proust comes for the first time here in 1891. Then , follow visits in 1907 to 1914,passing all the summers, The writer gave his name to the promenade and contribute to the image of romantism of the beach resort.

The school of Pont Aven in Bretagne. In the 1860’s American painters came here and stayed at the Hôtel du Lion d’Or and Hôtel de Voyageurs of Julia Guillou, However, it was in the Auberge de Marie-Jeanne Gloanec that you could find Paul Gauguin and the young Emile Bernard. The birth of an artistic revolution that was to create the School of Pont Aven and made the town know the world over. The Bois d’Amour, rivages de l’Aven, and the Plage du Pouldu brings scenes for painters that came to impact the world of Impressionists. After a long period of obscurity, Pont Aven comes back in the 1960’s as a village of painters guided by the echos of Gauguin. The expositions increase, and a museum is born where painting is the main attraction and for the town as a whole today. Yes indeed!

Published in 1909 l’Aiguille Creuse brings us a gentlemen thief of Arséne Lupin and it author Maurice Leblanc. The book brings out the beach resort of the côte d’Albätre in Normandie, very much in fashion in the Belle Epoque, Etretat was already known for its pure air, its promenade by the sea, and its casino. It attract the writers such as Flaubert, Maupassant , and painters Monet, Courbet, Corot, and the composer Offenbach, Thanks to the heroes of Maurice Leblanc the town takes off. Today we can dwell into the ambiance of the thief seductor in visiting the Clos Lupin, the old summer villa of the writer, purchase by his granddaughter Florence it is open to the public since 1999. The visit is like a enigma where you are the hero, crossing the garden and its pergola you find Gronard that welcomes you and then the voice of Georges Descriéres, the most famous of Lupin will guide you into the rooms of the villa in 7 steps to discover the secret of the Aiguille creuse !

At Collioure you have the flag of Fauvism. At the foot of the pyrénées between Perpignan and Spain the village of Collioure sits in a nice area with pretty monuments. It is the place that Henri Matisse and André Durain discovered in 1905. With its colors and the light of the mediterranean they gave birth to a new movement : Fauvism. To honor these precursor a trail has been made where 20 field reproductions are shown on the spot where the originals were done.

We go to Ornans the mirror of Courbet. It was January 10 1818 that was born in Ornans in the Doubs region the painter Gustave Courbet. After his studies in Besancon he goes to Paris but always inspired by his village. His portrait of L’Enterrement à Ornans is refuse at the universal exposition of 1855 due to his association with the communards and the falling of the column of Vendôme ; in 1874 he will need to pay the cost of the reconstruction with his work sold in auction. He take exile in Swizerland where he died of liver cirrhoses on December 31 1877. Without him Ornans would not be known as today.

And Van Gogh left his posterity in Auvers sur Oise ! As he told his brother Theo, « Here we are far from Paris to sense the real countryside, » Bordering the Oise river the countryside of Auvers sur Oise tell of his painting Le Champ de blé aux corbeaux painted near the cemetery where he RIP. His simple tomb with his brother is covered in dirt , the one coming from the garden of Dr Gachet where is now a museum. His walks in town are like his painting all about Auvers sur Oise and the countryside. Facing the mayor’s office you find the Auberge Ravaux now a museum in his memory. The room where he died has been done as it was, and the place done like a museum as he said «  One day or another, i will find the means to do an exposition of mine in a café ». Done!

And Alfred Sisley played in Moret sur Loing where the bridge, the church, and loing river basin remained the same as when Sisley was here. In 20 years he painted 90 portraits of the town and around it. From the house where he lived we see a hidden roof behind some trees and a high wall but easily go by a stairs that goes down to the Loing river to find the quays that he immortalise with his paintings. Nothing has change today,

At Barbizon, you see the school of Barbizon ! Early in the 19C Barbizon was a village in the forest of Fontainebleau and the plains of the Biére. However some portraits were done already by Jean Baptiste Camille Corot, as he frequented the auberge Ganne founded in 1822. By the middle of the 20C, Barbizon gain fame when came here Théodore Rousseau, and Jean François Millet . Their masterpieces gave the tour of the world with Les Glaneuses, Moutons aux pâturage, or l’Angelus, The School of Barbizon was born. Thanks to it the town saw enormous fame with its old shops transform into museums, the houses with tile roofs, and its romantic walks in the forest, the village still preserve its charms of old as time has stop indeed !!

A recap with name birth year and death year of each of these early photographers ! Victor Hugo (1802-1885), Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Maurice Leblanc (1864-1941), Paul Cézanne (1839-1906), Marcel Proust (1871-1922), Alfred Sisley (1839-1899), Gustave Coubet (1819-1877), Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890), Jean François Millet (1814-1875), and Thédore Rousseau (1812-1867).

The Art Guide on Romanticism in French:

The Art Guide on the Impressionists in French:

The History of Arts on Fauvism in French:

There you go folks, pure arts, the very best in the world, and lucky to have it all near in my belle France. This is my humble homage to these men and women who have delighted us with the beautiful portraits , essays, and stories to tell for generations to come. Hope you have enjoy this brief tour of the world of the arts by yours truly.

And remember, happy travels, good health, and many cheers to all!!!

February 22, 2022

Simply ,the Louvre!!!

And here i am again on the marvelous Louvre museum!!! I have written a post more on the inside of it, and need to update this one on the historical side of it and new pictures in my blog. There are really no words more to say, this is the ultimate in museums. Just saying Friends of the Louvre since 2004!! Hope you enjoy the post as I.

Well , LOUVRE! It is THE museum of the world, the best and most beautiful and full of history. I like the history of it, the place and the museum. The Louvre Museum, inaugurated in 1793 under the name Central Museum of the Arts of the Republic in the Palais du Louvre, former royal residence located in the center of Paris, is today the largest museum of art and antiques in the world.

paris louvre musee from tuileries gardens mar13

Located in the 1éme arrondissement or district  of Paris, on the right bank between the Seine river  and the Rue de Rivoli, the museum is marked by the glass pyramid of its reception hall, erected in the Cour Napoléon and which became emblematic, while the equestrian statue of king Louis XIV is the starting point of the Parisian historical axis. This site is served by the metro station Palais Royal-Musee du Louvre on lines 1 and 7  as well as RATP bus lines 21, 24, 27, 39, 48, 68, 69, 72, 81, and 95. There are about 554 731 works, of which 35 000 exhibited and 264 486 graphic works. These present Western art from the Middle Ages to 1848, that of ancient civilizations that preceded and influenced it  such as Oriental, Egyptian, Greek, Etruscan and Roman, the arts of early Christians and Islam. The Louvre is the most visited museum in the world. It is the most visited paid cultural site in France. I must many works are in storage no space! many seen in the basement of the Chartres Cathedral!!

Originally the Louvre existed as a  fortress, built by King Philip Augustus in 1190, and which occupied the southwest quarter of the present cour Carrée. With  the transfer of the property of the order of the Templiers to the order of the Hospitalieres, the royal treasure previously kept at The House of the Templiers of Paris is transported in 1317 to the Louvre. king Charles V makes the castle a royal residence. The big tower, which became obsolete, was destroyed by king François I in 1528. In 1546, the king began the transformation of the fortress into a residence; he brought down the western part of the medieval enclosure, which he had replaced by a Renaissance-style wing . This work continued under the reign of king Henry II and king Charles IX. The southern part of the enclosure of the “old Louvre” was in turn demolished to give way to a Renaissance wing. In 1594, king Henri IV decided to unite the Palais du Louvre to the Palais des Tuileries (gone 1881), built by Catherine de Medici in a great design  look for the whole structure, the first stage of which is the great gallery that joins the pavilion of Lesdiguieres (named in honor of François de Bonne, Baron De Champsaur, last Constable of France and first duke of Lesdiguieres) at the Pavillon de la Trémoïlle (in honor of Henri de la Trémoille ,  Field Marshal of the light cavalry of France. The Cour Carrée, under the reign of king Louis XIII and king Louis XIV was quadruple in size of the ancient court of the Renaissance, it necessitated the demolition of the remainder of the Medieval enclosure from king Charles V and his brothers Louis d’Anjou, King of Naples and Sicily, Jean, duke of Berry and Philippe le Hardi, duke of Burgundy , will develop a taste of luxury that lead them to make too many artists orders of illuminated books, fabrics and goldsmiths ‘ pieces. king Francis I was the first king of France to form a “painting cabinet”, i.e. a collection of easel paintings not related to the decoration of the royal mansions and which could be exhibited independently. Having succeeded in bringing Leonardo da Vinci to France in 1516, the king bought after the death of the latter on May 2, 1519 the paintings which he owned, to his executor Francesco Melzi.

Paris mus louvre pavillon Richelieu mar13

The religious troubles that began to appear at the end of the reign of King Henry II will limit the purchases of works of art. The beginning of the transformation of the Palace of Louvre into palatial splendor. It is necessary to wait until the end of the wars of religion with king Henri IV to see the resumption of the purchase of paintings and the development of a second school of Fontainebleau. The king built the large gallery of the Palais du Louvre, linking the small gallery built by king Charles IX to the Palais des Tuileries, and plans to house artists working for him. From the seizure of power by king Louis XIV in 1661, the enrichment of the Crown collection will become the object of special attention. The purchase of some of the works of art from Mazarin’s collection to his heirs was one of the first acts of king Louis XIV. In 1665, the collection was enriched with paintings purchased at the duke of Richelieu in 1671 and was created, within the royal collections, a special section devoted to drawings. This section is the ancestor of the department of Graphic Arts of the Louvre.

The Flemish painting is no longer considered an art inferior to the Italian art and the taste will increase in the second half of the reign of king Louis XIV. The royal collections will then be enriched with Flemish works . King Louis XIV has constituted a collection of many vases in hard stones, gems, and bronzes. He enriched the collection of crown jewels. The surviving gems are exhibited today in the Apollo Gallery.

Louis XVI resumes purchases of paintings for the royal collections ,and it was during the reign of king Louis XIV that the idea of making the Palais du Louvre a deposit of works of art belonging to the Crown was born. Despite the departure of the king for the Palace of Versailles, in 1681, four hundred paintings continue to be preserved at the Palais du Louvre, in the salon of the dome and in the gallery of Apollo and the antiques with the casts sent by the residents of the Academy of France in Rome are deposited in the room of the Caryatids. Although owned by the king, the collections were visible to amateurs and artists who requested it. It all begins with a provisional exhibition of the most beautiful paintings of the royal Collection, which is held in the Royal Gallery of paintings installed at the Palais du Luxembourg from 1750 to 1779 and which is very successful.

The project is transformed into a law on July 27, 1793, and the inauguration initially planned on August 10, 1793 is finally held on November 8, 1793, the museum taking the name of the Central Museum of the Arts of the Republic. The remains of the Treasure of the Holy Chapelle and the Treasure of Saint-Denis , and many other churches are recovered in 1791 to be deposited in the Cabinet of the medals of the King’s library. They are presented in 1793 at the new National Museum. The museum was first created as a place of training for the artists of the time, they were the only ones, until 1855, to be able to enter it during the week, the public is admitted, free of charge, only on Sundays.

From the consulate on November 9, 1802, the Louvre took the name of Musée Napoléon. From Napoleon I to Napoleon III, apart from the period of the Second Republic, the museum is part of the Sovereign’s civil list. Paris is occupied on March 31, 1814. Napoleon I abdicated on April 12th. The Royal Museum of the Louvre is founded by the ordinance of July 22, 1816 in which king Louis XVIII took part. The closing of the French Museum of Monuments in 1816 will allow the Louvre to collect the most important pieces, except those returned or relocated to Saint-Denis. With sculptures coming from the Palace of Versailles, they opened in 1824 a museum of modern sculpture installed in five rooms in the gallery of Angoulême between the pavilion of the clock and the pavilion of Beauvais .

Other important changes were made to the Louvre during the reign of king Charles X. The great Cabinet of King Louis XIV becomes the jewelers room, in 1822. The precious objects of the Louvre museum are exhibited there.  Jean-François Champollion at the Égyptologique Museum in Turin where he will discover Egyptian art;  Champollion was appointed curator of the Egyptian and Oriental Monuments Division of the Charles-X Museum on May 15, 1826. This museum is created on the first floor of the south wing of the cour Carrée. It occupies a row of nine halls which were the former apartments of the ruling Queens, then the halls of the Academy of Architecture. The Charles X Museum is open on December 15, 1827.  In 1748, Henri Louis Duhamel du Monceau, Inspector-General of the Navy, founder in 1741 of the Ecole de Marine de Paris for the boat-builder students, offered King Louis XV his collection of maritime models under the condition that it be accessible for specialists who might wish to see them at the Louvre where they were kept. It was then presented at the Louvre in a Naval Hall. This museum is created by the decision of King Charles X taken on December 27, 1827.

The bulk of the appropriations granted during the reign of Louis-Philippe I , king of the French were used for the works carried out at the Château de Versailles devoted to the glory of the great men of all times in August 1830, Louis-Philippe I dissolves the order of the Holy Spirit Founded by king Henri III on December 31, 1578. The Treasure of the order, which went through the revolution, is deposited in the Louvre. The Second Republic will begin a movement to increase the Palais du Louvre with the resumption of the great design and the redevelopment of the museum by taking up the project presented in 1765 by Diderot which made the palace the “Palace of the People” devoted to the arts and Science. The aim was to set up an expanded museum, the National Library and rooms for industrial exhibitions. The transformations continue under Napoleon III with the realization of the great design as  the North Gallery linking the Louvre to the Tuileries is completed by the addition of buildings. Others are also added to the south to ensure symmetry to this now gigantic architectural ensemble. The museum will gain from this transformation its entrance by the Denon Pavilion.

The museum under the Third Republic, the Communards had placed explosives in the cellars and sprinkled with oil the walls of the buildings of the new Louvre until the Pavillon de Marsan and the palace of the Tuileries which were ignited and destroyed.  Rebuild the Pavillon de Marsan with the wing of the new Louvre along the Rue de Rivoli, which doubles the width between 1873 and 1875, which is then destined for the Court of Auditors.  The northern facade of the pavilion of Flora is rebuilt.  The Palais des Tuileries will never be rebuilt, and after several years of deliberation, the ruins will finally be demolished in 1881. There was a great effort to rebuild it from architects to profs of the Sorbonne, and I was for a while the Treasurer of the National Committee for the Reconstruction of the Tuileries assoc but due to economic crisis, and death of prominent members, the project was dropped.

In 1895 was created the meeting of national Museums, which is an organization with a civil and moral personality, with an autonomous fund, the Caisse des Musées nationales, managed by a board of directors. The Caisse des Musées nationales receives an allocation from the state and has own resources, entrance fees, legacies, sales of objects. To alleviate this lack of funds and to allow the purchase of works of art by the Louvre Museum, the Society of Friends of the Louvre was created in 1897. An important part of the enrichment of the collection of paintings of the modern French school comes from the transfer to the Louvre Museum of paintings located at the Luxembourg Museum. The national furniture is the heir to the Crown storage. The Louvre then possessed few movable objects of art after the Renaissance. It was after 1871 that the most precious furniture of the Palais des Tuileries and the Château de Saint-Cloud, which had been evacuated before their fires, was deposited in the Louvre museum. The two castles are gone now.

From 1 August 1914 the government decided to close the Louvre museum. One month after the armistice was signed in Rethondes, the works returned to the museum. On January 16, 1920, the opening of the Louvre concerned the gallery of Apollo, the saloon, part of the Grand Galerie, the Salle of Châtel, the gallery of the seven meters, the hall of the French primitives and the collection Isaac de Camondo. The State Hall presenting the 19C French paintings is reopened on 10 May 1921 The Great War or WWI did not cause any damage to the museum.

During WWII, the museum’s masterpieces were evacuated according to a plan conceived from 1938 by the Director of National Museums of the time, Jacques Jaujard, who relied on a list drawn up since 1936 listing the works present in the various museums in France and various possible storage areas the Nazis authorities are reopening the museum on 29 September 1940, the entrance is free for the Nazis who are disappointed because the main masterpieces were evacuated (the walls of the first floor are thus empty), the sculptures descended into the basement. Despite the Nazis injunctions, no masterpiece is brought back the Louvre museum finds it, after a reverse voyage, almost all of its masterpieces thanks to the Artistic Recovery Commission (CRA), which also includes Rose Valland, Jacques Jaujard and René Huyghe. Many of these works of arts were kept in the castles of the Loire valley.

There are annex of the Louvre doing very well at the Louvre-Lens in the Nord dept 59 and then a more recent one the Louvre Abu Dhabi. The Louvre Conservation Centre was inaugurated in 2019 in Liévin in northern France, just next to the Louvre-Lens. Its primary goal is to protect the French national collections, entrusted to the Louvre’s safekeeping, from the risk of flooding; it is also designed to improve conservation and research conditions. It also, manage the Musée National Eugène-Delacroix. In addition to partnership and loaner with several institutions in the world. It is a must while in Paris or France for that matter.

The official Louvre Museum:

You can help and enjoy wonderful items from the Louvre museum by purchasing at the boutique :

The Paris tourist office on the Louvre:

There you go folks, the history of France and the world in one spot. Marvel at its wonders and be shown the way of a better enjoyable life. A wonderful gorgeous immense place a must to visit and with time to see it all. The Louvre is it!!! and one more reason Paris is eternal!

And remember, happy travels, good health,and many cheers to all!!!

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