Archive for April 7th, 2021

April 7, 2021

The Basques have San Sebastian!!!

And so much for my beloved Spain, all over is everything under the Sun! I like to update this post dear to the family and just one older personal picture as plenty on the wonderful San Sebastian in my blog. Hope you enjoy the tour and thanks for reading me over the years! This is like a bit of introduction to the city.

We always went around Somport or Portalet and come more central, but one trip we did it down the ocean from Lacanau in the Médoc of Bordeaux and we went to San Sebastian/Donostia, what a pleasant surprise and plenty of memories for the whole family.  Another wonderful place in my world map and lucky to have been able to visit with the family, my dear late wife Martine love it; my father came looking for chorizo, and we got a mouthful of Basque cuisine, with the beach this is it, la vida es chula en San Sebastian.

San Sebastian, also Donostia in basque, the capital of the province of Gipuzkoa, in the Basque Autonomous community of Spain. Bathed by the waters of the Cantabrian Sea, at the mouth of the Urumea River, it owes much of its fame to its harbour, the Bay of La Concha, framed by two rocky isles, the Igeldo and Urgull mountains, true natural balconies from which one can marvel at a large part of the city, the ocean and the hilly landscapes of the surrounding area.

How to get around San Sebastian other than on foot once in town!

City buses are the main means of municipal public transport in San Sebastian. This service is in place, since 1886, the Compañía du Tranvía de San Sebastian,it has 21 lines that include the whole city. Very well connected town with wonderful autovias or highways such as the A-1 Autovia from the North: Madrid-San Sebastian de los Reyes-Burgos-//-Miranda de Ebro-Armiñón-Vitoria-Gasteiz-San Sebastian; A-8 Autovia of Cantabria: Irun-San Sebastian – Bilbao; N-I Carretera del Norte taken too Madrid-Aranda de Duero-Burgos-Miranda de Ebro-Vitoria-Gasteiz-San Sebastian-Irun-French border; N-634 Carretera del Noroeste Santiago de Compostela-Oviedo-Torrelavega-Bilbao-San Sebastian. The San Sebastian Airport is located in the border town of Hondarribia.

A bit of history I like

The origins of San Sebastian are unknown. The oldest document mentions it in the year 1014. On the other hand, it is more certain that in the 12C, Sancho VI of Navarre, aka the Wise, would have put the monastery of San Sebastian in the hands of the abbot of Leyre and the bishop of Pamplona. This document will be confirmed, in 1201, by King Pedro I. The first written news of San Sebastian refers to a monastery, located in the neighborhood that still today is called San Sebastian el Antiguo (old). This place was primitively known, according to some historians, as Izurum. San Sebastian appears etymologically of the evolution of the word Donebastian (Done (Santo), and Sebastian). This king granted the rights of San Sebastian (a set of laws peculiar to the province), which will mark the chronological beginning of the history of the city.

After two centuries of heroically completing his war mission, king Felipe IV of Spain, in 1662, granted the title of City. Until its foundation there were only small residential areas in the district of the Antiguo (old Quarter), in the old part and in the valley of the Urumea, by undertaking until the 15C a slow process of growth.  In 1719, the city was taken by a strong French army and marshal of Berwick. The citadel is taken on August. The city was occupied by a garrison of two thousand French soldiers, until 25 August 1721, when it was evacuated following the Hague peace. 

During the War of Independence (from France), San Sebastian was occupied in 1808 by the Napoleonic troops. Joseph Bonaparte,(brother of Napoleon I)  ruler of Spain, entered San Sebastian on 9 June, running through Calle Narrica, in which all the windows had remained closed. In June 1813 the Allies, the Anglo-Portuguese troops, under the direct command of Sir Thomas Graham and the General Duke of Wellington, besieged the city. After several days of intense bombardment provoking a widening of the rift (French troops were entered by the latter in 1719), the assault operation formed by a column of volunteers, called the Desperados (outlaws), was started. A fortuitous fire and the explosion of a stockpile of ammunition caused a panic among the French, this event was to take advantage by the assailants obligating the French troops to withdraw to the castle, where they will capitulate on 8 September 1813.

On the death of King Alfonso XII of Spain, in 1885, his widow the Regent Queen Maria-Christina took the court to San Sebastian every summer, residing in the Miramar Palace. The remarkable buildings of the city are all of that timen apart from those of the old town , such as the Cathedral of Buen Pastor or Artzain Ona of San Sebastian, the Escuela de Artes and Oficios (current post Office) and the Instituto Peñaflorida ( then occupied by the Escuela Ingenieros Industriales and nowadays by the Cultural Centre Koldo Mitxelena), the Miramar Palace, the Victoria Eugenia Theater, the María Cristina Hotel, the villas of Paseo de Francia or Frantziako Pasealekua or the North station, as well as the rest of the buildings of the romantic area , all with a French style marked, which gave charm to San Sebastian and its nickname “Little Paris” or “Paris of the South”.

WWI made San Sebastian one of the most cosmopolitan cities in Europe. In its Casino there were all the personalities of the European highlife: Mata Hari, Léon Trotsky, Maurice Ravel, Romanones, Pastora Imperio, renowned bullfighters, bankers, etc. In the Belle Epoque, San Sebastian received the French operetta company, the Ballets Russes, opera singers and many other famous artists.  In 1930, the city hosted a meeting of Republicans, which was called the San Sebastian Agreement, which will have a significant impact in the later advent of the 2nd Republic in 1931. In fact, the first Republican government will be formed, to a great extent, by the core of politicians participating in the “Agreement”. The election of the capital Donostiarra was due on the one hand to the proximity of the city with the French Republic and to the fact that San Sebastian was the summer capital of the court.  Shortly after the start of the Spanish Civil War, on September 13, 1936, San Sebastian fell, without serious combat, into the hands of the Nationalists. The resort city was residence of Gen Franco in the month of August from 1940 to 1975 in the Palace of Aiete, bought by the City/Town Hall and offered to the head of state. During this period the councils of Ministers are held in this building. In the same building, the full Declaration on peace in the Basque Country will be pronounced on 17 October 2011 at the International Peace Conference in Aiete.

Things to see and do in pretty San Sebastian in my opinion are

The beaches , oh yes indeed, glorious right in town , these are the Ondarreta, La Concha ,and Zurriola, the first two located in the Bay of La Concha and the third on the other side of the Urumea River , which we usually park our car.  La Concha , It is one of the most famous urban beaches of Spain. It has a length of 1 350 meters  and an average width of 40 meters. ,its sand is fine white. It has 38 showers, shelters and beach chairs as well as showers and changing rooms. Close to this beach there is a parking lot (parking Kontxa). On the shores of the beach you will find the spa of La Perla, the former royal house of the Thermal baths (Casa Real de Baños) and the Royal Nautical Club (Real club Náutico), buildings which, with the famous grid along the beach, the elegant streetlights, two large clocks of the beginning of the century and the Palace of Miramar (Palacio de Miramar), which closes by the west, form an elegant and singular beach.  Ondarreta , Situated between the Palace of Miramar (Palacio de Miramar) and Mount Igeldo, it is the smallest of the three beaches. More informal than the Concha, in the promenade that touches it there are gardens in which one can find a statue in honour of Queen María Cristina. It has a length of 600 meters.  Zuriola , with a length of 800 meters , it is the beach most open to the sea and with higher surge, so that it is transformed by the attendance of  the young and the surfers. In 1994, a restructuring of the beach  was carried out with the construction of a dike which reduced the danger of water and with the general improvement of the quality of sand and water. The practice of naturism has been authorised since 2004.  There is a small beach that forms in the island of Santa Clara, to which can be access by boat in the Summer months or swimming, because it is 500 meters from Ondarreta beach at low tide.

Some great activities at the proper time in San Sebastian are

San Sebastian International Film Festival every year in mid-September, one of the world’s most important film festivals. Created in 1953, this festival has been taking place for a few years at the Kursaal, The Festival of Jazz of San Sebastian called also Jazzaldia, this festival created in 1965 is today one of the most important jazz festivals in Europe. This event usually takes place in mid-July. The Tamborrada is one of the city’s major traditional events. From January 19 (+ or-2 days) to midnight, and for 24 hours, marching bands parade through the city streets, in all quarters. The opening and closing of the festivities takes place in the Plaza de la Constitucion, which is, especially for the opening, crowded to such an extent that it is not possible to move there. It’s really something to live for. The characters in these bands are either cooks or soldiers. In parallel with these fanfares, the population participates in the din with the help of small drums.

And of course, the food is glorious, one of the best cuisine of Spain and I will say Europe. We love our eating out at Juanito Kojua, highly recommended.(see post).

Other things to see are

The City/town hall of San Sebastian dependencies are located in the old casino of the city, with the Bay of La Concha. The building was built in 1887 in the gardens of Alderdi-Eder of San Sebastian. Teatro Victoria Eugenia inaugurated in 1912. Here have played some of the most important interpreters of classical or theater music. It was reopened in March 2007. Teatro Principal ,it is the oldest of the theaters of Donostia/San Sebastian. Inaugurated in 1843, it adopted its present appearance at the end of the 19C. In addition to the usual theater works and some of those presented in the Teatro Feria, there are screenings of the Semana de cine Fantástico y de Terror (week of horror and unusual films) ,and Derechos Humanos Festival (Human Rights Festival) and some films from the film Festival.


Aquarium-Museum of the Sea ,located on the Paseo Nuevo/Paseo Berria near the harbor, it has a significant historical maritime collection, as well as a modern extension with giant aquariums and an underwater passage that exposes a large amount of species of fish and other marine animals; Whaling Museum , not far from the Aquarium-Museum of the Sea, this small museum reminds of this traditional and dangerous activity of the Basques, now extinct, but which, before the era of coal and hydrocarbons, has supplied oil to cities and made the fortunes of ship owners;  Museum of Science, on the heights of the city, adapted to children and young people of school age, a complete, interactive, experimental and playful panorama of the main physical, chemical and biological phenomena; A statue of Albert Einstein sitting on a bench welcomes visitors, while the park presents models of the main monuments of the Guipuscoa region;  San Telmo Museum, a municipal property and located in a former convent of the 16C. 

The Cathedral of the Good Shepherd (Catedral del Buen Pastor) was formerly a parish church, built from 1889 to 1897. The former Arena of Atocha  (bullfight arena). They dated from 1876 in demolishing this arena, its materials were used in the construction of the first houses of the district of Egia, the Castle of La Mota (Castillo de la Mota) and the fortifications are a defensive complex located on Mount Urgull.

Some webpages to help you plan your trip , and you must go are:

The San Sebastian tourist office:

the city of San Sebastian on moving about and tourist info:

The Euskadi Basque tourist board on San Sebastian/Donostia:

An unofficial tourism guide ,euskoguide on San Sebastian I found very informative , useful for all in English:

There you have it another jewel in my beloved Spain, you should come to San Sebastian too. And remember, happy travels, good health, and many cheers to all!!!

Tags: ,
April 7, 2021

Wonderful Lisbon and Libertade!

I have great memories doing this post and great to have updated in my blog. When I first came to Portugal, the first city I visited was Lisbon, this was back in 2012. My area and repeated several times after was Avenida da Libertade, and I am happy to redo this post. Hope you enjoy it as I , and see my many posts on Portugal in my blog.

Let me tell you today about a nice area of a nice city I came to like very much in my many trips there.   It is something nice to remember of the fonds memories of coming home, back to my dear late wife Martine. Oh yes, I am talking about Lisbon, Portugal. So close to it,  I learned the language as well. My oldest boy godfather is from Faro, and played on many Portuguese football/soccer community teams both in USA and France.  I have come several times to Lisbon,and never tired of it; it is so close to home, and so nice.

Getting here as always been by airplane and using either public transport in the city, or a friendly car ride and lots of walks in the city, especially around the Avenida da Libertade area. I have great stories of eating and drinking at by now my friends restaurant Pinoquio at Praça dos Restauradores close to Rossio. The typical Portuguese seafood and vinho verde wine place, love it. Many stories here; like the time gathered all my friends to come here thinking only 7 will come, and the rest show up by taxi and we were 22 without reservation!. I told the staff ,quick needed to find space, they knew me from many times there, and they move, so fast they created three spaces with extra tables/chairs to accommodate my friends, they were all impressed of my contacts lol!

Let me tell you a bit about the city of Lisbon, shall we take a walk.

Praça dos Restauradores or Restoration  square is located on the extreme southeast of the Avenida da Liberdade, and not far from the Praça de Dom Pedro IV (better known as Rossio). This square is dedicated to the restoration of Portuguese independence in 1640 after 60 years of Spanish domination .  The Obelisk in the center of the square was done in 1886, with the names and dates of the battles to reach the restoration in 1640. It is about 30 meters high.



The square is in a rectangular shape surrounded by buildings from the 19C and early 20C .You can admire the Palácio Foz, a palace built from the 18C to the 20C with decorated interiors now the  Museu Nacional do Desporto de Portugal (the National sports museum of Portugal) ; the former Eden Cinema which is now a hotel, with its 1930’s facade as well as the former Cinema Condes,built in the 1950’s in a modernist style that now houses the popular restaurant Hard Rock Cafe of Lisbon.

Coming up to this Restoration square you have the wonderful Avenida da Liberdade  or Liberty avenue that I stayed nearby always . It is a 90 meters wide and  1100 meters  long, with ten lanes divided by pedestrian pavements decorated with gardens. It links the Praça dos Restauradores  with Praça do Marquis of Pombal square. The avenue was done to modeled after the big Parisian boulevards. The Avenida da Liberdade, as well as the Praça dos Restauradores, have their origins in a public park (Passeio Público) inaugurated in the area in 1764. The park was initially surrounded by a high wall. It was revamped in the 1830s and 1840s with new arrangement of the flora as well as fountains, a waterfall and statues. The allegoric statues representing the Tagus and Douro rivers still existing in the boulevard of the Avenue date from this time.

The Avenida da Libertade has several nice hotels and restaurants and it is a prize area to stay in Lisbon as I do …. on my business trips.  Several statues adorned the Avenida such as the  Statue to  Simón Bolívar ,done by the Venezuelan community in Portugal in  1978 ; Statue of Oliveira Martins, 1952 ;  Statue of Alexandre Herculano, 1950; Statue of  Almeida Garrett, 1950;  Statue of  António Feliciano de Castilho, 1950;  Monument to Rosa Araújo, 1936;  Monument to the Fallen of WWI , 1931;  and the Monument to Pinheiro Chagas,1908.  Also ,nice building like the jewerler store Prada, and the the one where was born  D. Maria Pia de Saxe-Coburgo Gotha e Bragança,in  1907.  She  was a writer and better known as claiming to be the illegitimate daughter of king  Charles Ier of Portugal and therefore the Duchess of Braganza, and pretender to the throne of Portugal.  She was, also, known as in publishing book under the pseudo name Hilda de Toledano.

There are three metro stations along the avenue such as Restauradores  at the southeast end, served by the blue line. Avenida at about the midpoint of the avenue, served by the blue line. Marquês de Pombal  at the northwest end (close to a giant roundabout with 4 lanes), served by the blue and yellow lines.

At the very nice Praça do Marquês de Pombal square, also known as the round about of the Marquês de Pombal or traffic circle is located between the Avenida da Liberdade and on the other side the Parque Eduardo VII. In the center there is the monument to the Marquês de Pombal, built in 1934. Done with a stone pedestal and 40 meters high ,the statue itself in bronce. The Edward VII park is a very place to unwind with lovely gardens on a 26 hectare park just crossing the Marques of Pombal Square. Its name pays homage to king Edward VII of the United Kingdom who visited Portugal in 1902, to strengthen the relations between the two countries. Until that visit, its name was Liberty Park (Parque da Liberdade).  Inside the park you have the Carlos Lopes Pavilion (the former Portuguese pavilion of the 1922 Rio de Janeiro International Exposition) and the Estufa Fria (a 1.5 hectare greenhouse garden). On the northern top of the park is a flagpole where the present largest Flag of Portugal of the world is usually flown.  The Lisbon Book Fair is annually held in the Parque Eduardo VII.

If the Praça do Marqués de Pombal is at one end of the Avenida da LIbertade passing by the Praça dos Restauradores, then the Rossio Square  as it is known locally but actually officially is the Pedro IV Square  or  Praça de D. Pedro IV  is located in the other extreme. Being one of the main squares since the Middle Ages. It has been the setting of popular revolts and celebrations, bullfights and executions, and is now a preferred meeting place of Lisbon natives and tourists alike. The current name of the Rossio pays homage to Pedro IV, King of Portugal. The Column of Pedro IV is in the middle of the square. Here you have another metro station Rossio on the Green line as well as the train station by same name (previously called Central) and the nice National Theater of Dona Maria II. It was built on the former landlot of the Estaus Palace built itself in 1450 to house the foreign dignataries and nobles visiting Lisbon . In the 16C the palace was the place of the Portuguese inquisition , save from the earthquake of 1755 it was later destroyed by fire in 1836. The theater was completely redone and opened in 1978.

All up and down the Avenida da Libertade passing by the glorious Square of the Marques of Pombal, then the Restauradores square and finally reaching the Rossio is chic grand wonderful Lisbon and easy central to all with good local public transportation. A wonderful area, beautiful walks and looking forward to be back when possible.

Some webpages to help you plan your trip here ,and it is a must in my opinion ,are:

The Lisbon tourist office:

The city of LIsbon on public transports in Portuguese:

The Portugal tourist board on Lisbon

There you go , a nice piece of real estate in lovely quant Lisbon for you to set your wings on. Hope it helps your plans. And remember, happy travels, good health,and many cheers to all!!!

Tags: ,
April 7, 2021

A detour to Darmstadt, Germany!

And here is a pleasant update older post of a family trip that allow me to show them where I have been on business trip before. I enjoy the educational trip and hope you enjoy it as I. This is when I took a detour to Darmstadt, Germany!  I like to reminicent of this city in Germany a bit ok.  First, thank you all for following my blog ,its a pleasure having you around.

I came to know the city of Darmstadt because my company had a branch there that reported to me Finance wise. My interactions were daily so eventually I traveled a couple times there in 2004! As I recall all my business trips with the family in a general sights views basis, they were interested on all the places I have gone to ,of course. Once, we decided to vacation in Germany back in 2015, I told them would be a perfect opportunity to visit this off the beaten path city, and so we did.  It had good impressions on me and later the family as well so its time to tell you again about it on a bit of history side. Here is the story ,briefly.

Darmstadt is a city in the Hesse region part of the Rhine of Germany; closest cities are Frankfort Main at about 30 km and Mannheim at about 45 km as well as Heidelberg.  It is call the City of Science due to the proliferation of technical schools and research centers there including the technical University founded in 1877.

Darmstadt is connected to a number of major roads, including two Autobahnen the no 5 and no 67 however the main road passing west east is the bunderstrabe 26 and the north south no 3. The public transport system of Darmstadt is integrated in the RMV (the transportation authority of the Frankfort Metropolitan Area). The backbone of public transport in Darmstadt is its modern tramway network of 9 lines and a local bus service serving all parts of the city. Darmstadt is furthermore connected to the Frankfort S-Bahn train network and being served by regional bus lines. Furthermore, regional rail lines R64, R65, and R66 connect six secondary railway stations within the city. Darmstadt is connected to the Frankfurt rapid transit network by the S-Bahn line S3. Darmstadt can be easily accessed from around the world via Frankfort Airport which is located 20 km (12 mi) from central Darmstadt and connected to it via the expressway autobahn no 5 and S-Bahn rail as well as several bus lines and a direct express bus-link , Airliner. On my business trips I came to the airport.

A bit of history I like

Darmstadt was chartered as a city by the Holy Roman Emperor Ludwig the Bavarian in 1330, at which time it belonged to the counts of Katzenelnbogen. When the house of Katzenelnbogen became extinct in 1479, the city was passed to the Landgraviate of Hesse , and was seat of the ruling Landgraves from 1567 to 1806, and thereafter to 1918 of the grand dukes of Hesse. The city became the capital of the princes of Hesse-Darmstadt from 1567 while the creation of the landgravat of Hesse-Darmstadt created after the death of Philip the Magnanimous. Part of the possessions of Philip the Magnanimous were ceded to Hesse-Cassel, Hesse-Marbourg, Hesse-Rheinfels, Hesse-Darmstadt, and Dietz. In 1668, Friedrich Jacob Merck purchase the pharmacy of Engel and put the basis of his empire of the future Merck KgaA pharmaceutical company of today.   In 1711 the Great Landgraves Caroline of Palatine-Deux-Ponts-Birkenfeld and Johann Heinrich Merck of the mentioned family were the initiators of forming a Circle of Romantic composers such as Goethe, Herder, and Klopstock.

In 1806 after the end of the Germanic Holy Roman Empire the landgravat of Hesse-Darmstadt became the Grand Duke of Hesse and the Rhine. This Grand Duke had the protection of the Tsar of Russia, nephew by alliance to the first Grand Duke.  The princes and lovers of arts made Darmstadt an intellectual and cultural capital and towards 1900, a center of the Art Nouveau movement; many institutes especially the German Academy of the Language and Poetry and the Aesthetics and Industrial Institute continues today this tradition. In 1844, the monument to Ludwig Langer was built in the square Louise (Luisenplatz) with the statue of the Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig. From 1898 to 1908, the Grand Duke Ernst Ludwig had name 7 artists to create the colony of artists of Mathildenhöhe. His mother was a child of the Queen Victoria and his sister Alix of Hesse-Darmstadt married the Russian tsar Nicolas II to come to a tragic ending. To note, all 3 tsars having married princesses of Hesse-Darmstadt were assassinated.

In 1918, the defeat of Germany made end to the monarchy. Two sisters of the Grand Duke, the tsarine of Russia and the Grand Duchesse Elisabeth were assassinated with their families by the Russian Bolsheviks. The son of the last Grand Duke, openly against the Nazis died with his wife, his mother and the children in 1937 in a suspect airplane accident. Darmstadt was the first city in Germany to force Jewish shops to close in early 1933, shortly after the Nazis took power in Germany. Darmstadt was first bombed on in July 1940, and 34 other air raids would follow before the war’s end. Post-war rebuilding was done in a relatively plain architectural style, although a number of the historic buildings were rebuilt to their original appearance following the city’s capture on 20 March 1945 by the American 4th Armoured Division. At the end of WWII, Darmstadt was among the 112 communities where U.S. Forces were stationed. Early units stationed here included elements of the U.S. Constabulary, Air Force units and a Quartermaster School. As part of the U.S. Army’s ongoing transformation in Germany, the Darmstadt military community, by then designated as U.S. Army Garrison Darmstadt was inactivated on 30 September 2008. Even after the garrison inactivation, however, there is still one unit active in Darmstadt not showing in some official documents until much later, this is the 66th Military Intelligence Group at the Dagger Complex on Eberstädter Weg. They have created a community ,and the base is just a datacenter now. 

You can easily spent a day here on things to see and I would say as a side trip to Frankfort or even Trier near where we were base! And once in the city on foot is glorious! Many of these have a separate posts in my blog so pictures will be few if any here

The Evangelical Church, The Russian Chapel of Darmstadt, and the Saint Louis Church. Other interesting places to see are the History House of Darmstadt, the colony of artists of Mathildenhöhe , the German Center for Art Nouveau and its museum. The Prince Georges palace built in 1710 old residency of the landgraves and today housing the wonderful collection of porcelain from the Grand Dukes in which almost all were gifts of the Imperial and Royal families of Europe forming the biggest collection of porcelain coming from the Grand Ducal factory of Kelsterbach and other German and Russian factories. The Regional museum of Hesse, the Hunting museum, the city hall building built from the 16C to 18C, the column of Louis Ier of Hesse; the castle Frankenstein and the nice theater of Darmstadt.


The Luisenplatz, the central square of the city, forms the center of the city and is the main public transport hub. Other important squares are the Marktplatz near the old city hall and the Sabaisplatz at the Mathildenhöhe. Among the most important parks are the English style Herrngarten in central Darmstadt. In former times it was part of the Royal Gardens used exclusively by the dukes of Darmstadt. Today it is a public park . The French style parks Prinz-Georgs-Garten and Orangerie, the modern style Bürgerpark or People’s Park in northern Darmstadt and the mystical Park Rosenhöhe, or Rose Heights, which also serves as the cemetery for the dukes, with two impressive mausoleum buildings in its remote parts. The Botanischer Garten or Botanical Garden in eastern Darmstadt is maintained by the Darmstadt University of Technology with a fine collection of rare plants and trees.


Some webpages to help you plan your trip here are:

The city of Darmstadt on things to see:

The Darmstadt tourist office:

The Germany tourist board on Darmstadt:

The Frankfurt Rhein Main region on the Mathildenhöhe of Darmstadt:

Enjoy the seldom visit areas of Germany for a wonderful local experience and by going to Darmstadt you will feel just that, unique. Hope you enjoy the post as I.

And remember, happy travels, good health ,and many cheers to all!!!

Tags: ,
%d bloggers like this: