Archive for June 20th, 2020

June 20, 2020

Opéra Garnier or Palais Garnier!

So as always , written pieces before , but feel this magnificent monument to Paris, France, the World needs more and so personal. I ,therefore will write a bit long post on the Opéra Garnier or more precisely on the building, the Palais Garnier. Of Paris of course! I was by here for several years, and up and down and around it as worked across the street ! This is one of the most emblematic icons of Paris! It stuck on you, like anything in Paris does.

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The Opéra Garnier Palais Garnier, is a national theater which aims to be an academy of music, choreography and lyric poetry; it is a major element of the heritage of quartier or neightborhood Opéra in the  9éme arrondissement or district of Paris. It is located at Place de l’Opéra, at the north end of Avenue de l’Opéra (see posts) and at the crossroads of numerous streets. It is accessible by metro Opéra station, lines 3, 7 and 8, and  by RER line A, Auber station and by bus lines  22, 52, 53, 66, and Roissybus (aiport CDG). Parking  Q-Park Edouard VII  and Rue Bruno Coquatrix facing 23 Rue de Caumartin.

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The story goes that on a design by the architect Charles Garnier selected following a competition, its construction, decided by Napoleon III in the framework of the transformations of Paris carried out by the prefect Haussmann and interrupted by the war of 1870, was resumed at the beginning of the Third Republic, after the destruction by fire of the opera Le Peletier in 1873. The building was inaugurated on January 5, 1875.

The jury was chaired by Prince Walewski, natural son of Napoleon I and the Countess Walewska. This group of experts is entrusted with the heavy task of examining, in five eliminatory sessions, the drawings of the one hundred and seventy-one candidates. On May 30, 1861, Charles Garnier was proclaimed unanimously the winner. Charles Garnier was the first Grand Prix of Rome in 1848. However, he was a young architect who had not yet really proven himself on a large-scale project. The architect Charles Garnier received the decorations of Knight of the Legion of Honor, in 1864, Officer in 1875, Commander in 1889 and Grand Officer in 1896. The Academy of Fine Arts paid homage to him in 1899. he died 1898.

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The choice of location is proposed for the competition by the Prefect Haussmann; it is land intended to be surrounded by high-rise apartment buildings. To built it took some demolition of a good part of the neighborhood of Chaussée d’Antin that saw many mansions from the 18C disappeared.  It was done taken some portions of the boulevard des Capucines and Grands Boulevards. From it ,the streets ride out in star formation such as the avenue de l’opéra, rue Auber, rue Halevy, rue du Quatre-Septembre, and rue de la Paix that takes you to the Place Vendome.

The beginning of the works takes place in 1861, but officially the laying of the first stone took place the following year, in 1862. During the excavations , intended for the realization of the solid masses of foundations, the works must abruptly stop . The level of the water table is quickly reached and the situation requires the installation of a cofferdam and steam pumps operating day and night for eight months, drying all the wells in the surrounding districts. A large concrete casing or raft is created. Soon filled with water, the latter allows the infrastructures to withstand the underlying pressure of infiltration water, estimated at 2,000 tons, and to better distribute the loads of part of the buildings in a basement of poor quality.  After construction, it serves as a reservoir for firefighters in the event of a disaster. Construction spanned nearly fifteen years, from 1861 to 1875. This water basin gives rise to leyend such as the Fantôme of the Opéra.

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Napoleon III asked Haussmann to build an avenue connecting the Palais des Tuileries, (demolished in 1883 see post) ,where he resides, to the Palais Garnier. Large and with direct access to the Emperor’s pavilion, this artery would allow the sovereign to circulate without the risk of another assassination attack. This new traffic axis was to be called “avenue Napoléon III”. The inauguration by Marshal Patrice de Mac-Mahon, took place on September 19, 1877 amid scaffolding and buildings under construction. Thus, the avenue de l’Opéra was not completed until 1879, well after the end of the construction of the Palais Garnier and the fall of the Second Empire.

The inauguration took place on Tuesday January 5, 1875 in the presence of the President of the Republic Mac Mahon, the Lord Mayor of London, the Burgomaster of Amsterdam, the Royal Family of Spain and nearly two thousand guests from the Whole Europe and elsewhere. The program includes: the opening of La Muette de Portici d’Auber; the first two acts of La Juive de Halévy with Gabrielle Krauss in the role of Rachel; the opening of William Tell by Rossini; the scene from Giacomo Meyerbeer’s The Blessing of the Daggers of the Huguenots; and La Source, ballet by Léo Delibes. Charles Garnier would have been invited (no proof thus). He must pay for his place in a second box. expresses a rejection of the new rulers towards those who, directly or indirectly, served the fallen emperor, who died in 1873, and the usual ingratitude of the powerful towards artists. On February 7, 1875  is the masked and transvestite ball of the Opera, annual event of the Paris Carnival, it brings together about eight thousand participants. The last edition of this ball, created in 1715, will take place there in 1903.

Charles Garnier wishes to erect a monument of eclectic inspiration, thus obeying the fashion of his time, the facades of his lyric theater having to offer a permanent show to the pedestrian of Paris. His work, which became one of the most famous examples of the style specific to the Napoleon III period, reveals a temperament with multiple inclinations and a particular attraction for Baroque art. If the architecture of Garnier brings together several styles, it is nevertheless the Baroque, very fashionable in theatrical constructions, which prevails. The whole has a footprint of 12,000 m2 and a total work area of ​​58,000 m² (the largest in the world at the time, and this until the 1970s), 172 meters long, 101 meters wide and 79 meters elevation. The large performance hall can accommodate around 2,000 spectators. A longitudinal section model, (W 5.78m – H 2.40m – D 1.10m, exhibited at the Musée d’Orsay was produced in 1986 by Richard Peduzzi who chose to reproduce the Opera according to Garnier’s original plans.

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Outside and inside, the Palais Garnier shows Euville stone in blond shades, colored marbles and the parts covered with gold underlines the quality of the design and the proportions and offers the discerning eye a profusion. architectural details. To explain this choice of great chromatic diversity, Garnier claims that he wants to go against “the sadness of Haussmannian town planning”. The large facade, overlooking the Place de l’Opéra and located at the crossroads of many Haussmannian breakthroughs, serves as a backdrop to the perspective of the avenue which will be opened a little later. In a way, it constitutes the artist’s manifesto. Its scholarly outline and proportions as well as its rich polychromy express, in a skilful synthesis, the very essence of eclectic architecture.
The four main groups on the front are from left to right: The poetry of François Jouffroy (with his palms); The instrumental music of Eugène Guillaume (with his musical instruments); The Dance of Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, whose naked characters provoked the ire of the Puritans and The dramatic drama of Jean-Joseph Perraud (with his dying victim). Sublime!!!

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Going around the Opéra or Palais Garnier a bit.

The West side facade or garden side shows an  elevation visible from rue Auber and rue Scribe as well as from Place Charles-Garnier. The entrance is indicated by a series of green marble columns, two of which are surmounted by a large imperial eagle in bronze, a symbol miraculously preserved after the Second Empire. The entrance was intended only for Napoleon III and his relatives.

The Emperor’s pavilion communicates directly with a front stage lodge on the garden side. It is ultimately the Presidents of the Republic who use this ingenious distribution ensuring security and discretion. This element of the composition is also known as the “Head of State Pavilion”. These salons, having therefore not had time to serve the monarch, were subsequently chosen to host the Opera Library-Museum (BMO) which today houses many works and objects.

The East side facade or courtyard side shows an elevation visible from rue du Halévy and rue Gluck as well as from Place Jacques Rouché. The entrance is preceded, like that located to the west, by a series of columns of green marble. Only several female figures at the bottom, bronze torchiere holders, mark the difference with the opposite access.

The rear facade  is a paved courtyard, surrounded by a circular wall, incorporates a monumental portal with a sculpted tympanum, as well as two other gates and two secondary doors made of ironwork. The service entrances are at the rear of the building
The large central dome is covered with copper which, once oxidized, takes on a green color. Formerly, the domes of the two pavilions were also covered in the same way, today they are made of zinc, like the other roofs of the building. Certain decorations of the domes covering the two side pavilions are made of lead. The lantern of the large dome is in repoussé, gilded copper.

The exterior of the opera house is surrounded by sixty different lights. The set includes: lampposts, caryatids (day and night, depending on their position on the east and west side façades, candelabras, pyramidal columns in peach blossom marble, rostral columns and imperial marble columns turquin blue Some luminaires could not have been made in bronze, as Charles Garnier wished, so it is simply coppered cast iron which constitutes the material.

The Opéra Garnier has two semi circular buildings on each end. It was done to host emperor Napoléon III in the pavillon de l’Empereur giving to the street rue auber and the place Charles Garnier.  Decorated with eagles in bronze preceeded by two ramps to load furniture’s ,etc ; this pavilion d’honneur is today the Museum Library of the Opéra.  It has a great hall à l’Italienne, with red and gold tones and five levels of windows that makes it at level with the street rue Lepeletier de Debret raised in 1821, beforehand the salon of the street rue de Richelieu from the 18C.  You see the sun and the symbol of Louis XIV on top of the scene recalling the foundation of the Académie Royale de musique in 1669.  A composition painted of Chagall replaces since 1964 the ceilings painted by  Lenepveu.

paris opera garnier back mar13

The wonderful grand salon or grand foyer  was inspired by the Palace of the Doges in Venice on the ceiling evoking  the music, mythology and Christianism. The influence of the Galeria Farnèse des Carrache, on the ceiling by the galerie des glaces of Versailles, and the Bibliothéque or library of the Palais-Bourbon of Delacroix  can be noted.  The paintings of  Delaunay (Apolo receiving the lyre, Orpheus , and Eurydice…), of Barrias ,and Clairin, completes the ensemble. The abundant golden decoration contribute to the lighting on the columns, chimneys and caryatids.

The Foyer de la Danse is a workspace for artists of the corps de ballet; its ornamentation, almost as refined as that of the spaces reserved for the public, makes it a sanctuary of dance.  The rehearsal rooms for the choreography, there are a dozen rooms in addition to the dance hall . The artists’ lodges, there are about 80 individual lodges and collective lodges of all sizes, which can accommodate up to five hundred artists .The school Dance at the Opera, has moved and the old premises of the dance classes have been refurbished and modernized for rehearsals and daily lessons for the artists of the corps de ballet. The storage of set workshops are located outside the building itself, but designed by the same Charles Garnier assisted by engineer Gustave Eiffel, the set-up workshops, stores and reserves are located on Boulevard Berthier, in the 17éme arrondissement of Paris, they are named Ateliers Berthier.

Do not leave without trying the CoCo restaurant (for Coco Channel) , you go in by the  place Jacques Rouché to the right facing the façade of the opera. More info here: CoCo at the Palais Garnier Paris

You have interesting places and very personal to me ,such as the Café de la Paix (was under my responsibility accounting wise and historical monument of France) as well as the Le Grand Intercontinental Hotel (was also under my responsibility accounting wise).

For programming ,hours, prices etc, see the official Opéra Garnier in English here: Opera de Paris on the Palais Garnier programming

The Paris tourist office on the Opéra Garnier in English: Paris tourist office on the Opera Garnier

As Paris, all is sublime, the Opéra Garnier or Palais Garnier is a masterpiece of France. Enjoy it.

And remember, happy travels, good health, and many cheers to all!!!

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June 20, 2020

Another look at the Jardin des Tuileries!

Who wants to ride underground, or even above ground, walking is sublime in Paris. I have been lucky to have worked in the city for several years, and always at beautiful spots. None better , however, than right next to the Jardin des Tuileries. A sublime spot in my eternal Paris.

Of course, I have written before on it, but never enough of this magnificent garden right in the middle of the grandeur of Paris and my belle France. All points should start from here into the Louvre, Place Vendôme, Opéra Garnier, Pl de la Concorde, Avenue des Champs-Elysées, well you get an idea.  I have written of my previous jobs politically correct before too.

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I like to bring some new information , some wonderful description on the Jardin des Tuileries from my brochure taken from the Louvre museum. And of course, some photos of my walkabout to work coming here for lunch or just plain air and dreams, you can dream big in Paris too, it goes with the place.

The Jardin des Tuileries, of major historical importance, covers 22.4 hectares. It has surrounded by three small gardens along the rue de Rivoli extends the jardin de l’Oratoire or Oratory garden (4,500 m2), and, facing the Seine, the jardin de l’Infante (3,900 m2) and the jardin Raffet (1,250 m2). These small gardens are not accessible to the public. In the heart of Paris, located between the Louvre and the Place de la Concorde and bordered by the Seine and the Rue de Rivoli. Since 2005, the Louvre museum has managed and implemented it in value, it has also been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1991, as part of the “Rives de la Seine”.

Since the Middle Ages, tilers and potters have been active at this location, hence the name “Tuileries” , even a tile factory by the middle part facing the Seine river. In the 16C, the garden was ordered by Catherine de Medici, the widow of King Henry II, and ordered built Palais des Tuileries (gone since 1883 but see post) that she was designing. The garden of course was done first by a native of it, André Le Nôtre. First royal garden, it became in the 17C one of the first Parisian gardens open to the public. There are a few big names in landscaping to remember: André Le Nôtre, who redesigned the garden from 1664, and, recently, Pascal Cribier and Louis Benech, who renovated it as part of the “Grand Louvre”.

Originally, the garden was exclusively reserved for the royal family and the court. During the reign of Louis XIV, it opened up to the promenade for honest people: it should be shown there, as if on parade. But it was during the French revolution that attendance democratised. The people can finally enjoy the garden that has become national property. First reserved for royal or imperial children, like Louis XIII or the King of Rome, it becomes the favorite playground for children, whoever they are from.

Henri IV had white mulberries planted on the Terrasse des Feuillants, essential for the breeding of silkworms , an industry he wished to develop. The great inventor of the gardens of Louis XIV, André Le Nôtre innovates by opening a perspective towards the future avenue des Champs-Elysées. The garden evolves from an “Italian” style to a “French” style.  As for gardeners, they are committed to preserving the environment by recycling waste, outlawing any chemical weed killer and using insects to fight against pests. At the jardin des Tuileries, the walker also discovers an open-air museum. Statues began to adorn it at the beginning of the 18C, first for the approval of the very young Louis XV. Since then, the garden has never ceased to be enriched with works of primary importance and hosts each fall the International Fair of Contemporary Art. As for the plant heritage, it is rich and varied, with more than thirty-five species of trees. In the Grand Couvert, they provide shade and freshness, while the flower beds of the Grand Carré mix perennial and annual plants in subtle combinations, renewed each year.

The first Motor Show in 1898 was held here. Artists have always taken the jardin des Tuileries as their motif: the Impressionists, such as Claude Monet, painted its light and colors in a radically innovative way. Even today, this garden inspires and welcomes the avant-garde of creation. The recent reconstruction of the bivouacs of the 14-18 war is part of this commemorative tradition. The jardin des Tuileries welcomed Polish ambassadors there in 1574 or Turkish ambassadors with Mehemet Effendi in 1721. Under the French revolution the funeral ceremony of August 27, 1792 was held there, or the saltpeter feast on March 10, 1794. In 1810, the procession of the marriage of Napoleon and Marie-Louise crosses the beautifully paved garden. Throughout the 19C and whatever the regimes, the official festivals were numerous. During the 1900 World Fair, the Banquet of Mayors brought together 22,000 elected officials. Before the Great War or WWI, monuments were erected to the glory of Republican legislators Jules Ferry and Waldeck-Rousseau.

In the summer of 2020, flowering will herald the exhibition Le Corps et l’Âme, or the body and the soul, which will be devoted this fall to Italian Renaissance sculpture. The art gardeners were inspired by Michelangelo’s famous “Slaves”, but also by reliefs of the “Bacchante delirious”, a decorative frieze by Mino da Fiesole, a sarcophagus. From these sculptures, they sought to transcribe the expressions of the body and the movements of the soul. Shades of flaming red evoke violent movements, pink and mauve harmonies the grace of light drapes. As for the soul, it is suggested by the texture of the plants, sometimes vaporous, sometimes architectural. Planted in May and June, the annual flowers give their measure throughout the summer until mid-October. They are supported by perennial plants, which last longer. A total of 2,600 m2 of flowerbeds are available to walkers, with signage explanations.

The Paris tourist office on the Jardin des Tuileries in English: Paris tourist office on the Jardin des Tuileries

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I came to work on rue de Castiglione corner of rue de Rivoli facing the side main entrance to the Jardin des Tuileries going to the Place Vendôme! It was magical just to go out for lunch or catch air and walk around it , inside of it! Very strong moments seeing Paris as it really is, in all seasons , and even coming with the family on weekends. Not to leave out the wonderful other museums of the Orangerie facing the Seine, and Paume facing rue de Rivoli and both out to the Place de la Concorde. Walking it octagonal basin and the pigeons is just very romantic me think. Then, you move along the allée centrale to the big basin and even now little boats awaits you. Before facing the wonderful Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel.

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However, my main take was the part inside but along rue de Rivoli, going to the pavillon Marsan and now the musée des arts décoratifs. There is a big green space before it and just love to sit and watch the world go by from the inside. All of it on the side you could enjoy rides from the forains wheels and loops and the works good for the whole family and great to see the little ones enjoy themselves for a break from work. There is the Exédre square garden which was the meeting point of collègues!!! Right by the exit on rue de Rivoli into rue de Castiglione you have a nice carrousel, wonderful. On the other side you have a children’s playground. You can see the obelisk of the pl Vendôme right from the garden on this area. Just magical!!! The jardin des Tuileries memories forever and glad to have found it. I go by when visiting the city just for a walk and also meeting old collègues.

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You will notice two wonderful sculptures going up the stairs from the Jardin des Tuileries exit into the rue de Rivoli, these are wonderful me think and they are done by Auguste-Nicolas CaÏn . The one on your left hand side is in bronze “Le rhinocéros attaqué par un tigre”  or the rhino attacked by a tiger , dates from 1882/1884 ,and on your right hand side also in bronze « Le lion et la lionne se disputant un sanglier »  or the lion and the lioness fighting over a boar dates from 1875/1882. My eternal Paris!

Hope you enjoy this rather personal post, but of course Paris is open to the world and on the jardin des Tuileries you find peace!

And remember, happy travels, good health, and many cheers to all!!!

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June 20, 2020

Hôtel-Dieu, a hospital in Paris!

Well, yes how about a hospital in Paris, but not just any hospital, this is the Hôtel-Dieu , the oldest in Paris and right next by Notre Dame Cathedral. A wonderful area, great architecture, beautiful history and just great walkable area of my eternal Paris.

I think to post on it because of its architecture and historical context and the area in which it is as of now. One of the things I encourage always is to not just visit a place but get to know it, local point of view. This is what I am trying to convey in my blog when I post long on architecture and history of the places. My belle France! Hope you enjoy it!

The Hôtel-Dieu is located at 1 place du Parvis Notre Dame / Place Jean-Paul II on the 4éme arrondissement de Paris. You can get here walking, best of course. However, public transports take you on Metro line 4 stop/arrét Cité, Hôtel de Ville lines 1 and 11, Châtelet lines 1,4,7, and 14. Cluny-la Sorbonne and Maubert-Mutualité line 10 as well as RER B and C Saint Michel-Notre Dame. By bus stop/arrét Cité-Palais de Justice on lines 21, 38, 47, 85, and 96. Also, stop/arrét Cité-Parvis Notre Dame on line 47, Pont Neuf-Quai du louver on line 81, Hôtel de Ville stop on lines 69 and 74, Notre Dame-Quai de Montebello on line 24. There is no parking on site but plenty nearby at Parvis Notre Dame, Hôtel de Ville, and Palais de Justice underground parking garages.

There are plans to move the Hôtel Dieu hospital to new location in the heart of the Saint-Antoine Hospital by the beginning of 2022; it will be join by teams of the hospitals of Paris now at avenue Victoria and rue Saint Martin. The official webpage for Hospitals of Paris on the Hôtel Dieu is here in French: Hospitals of Paris on bit of Hotel Dieu

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I like to tell you a bit of its history always wonderful in my eternal Paris.

The Hôtel-Dieu de Paris is a hospital establishment built latest from 1867 to 1878 on the Ile de la Cité, on the northern edge of the Parvis Notre-Dame square in the 4éme arrondissement of Paris. The Hôtel-Dieu is by the date of its foundation, the oldest hospital in the city as was created in 651 by the Parisian bishop Saint Landry, it was the symbol of charity and hospitality. Originally modest, the old Hôtel-Dieu built from the 7C to the 17C occupied the other side of the current Parvis Notre-Dame – Place Jean-Paul-II on the bank of the small arm of the Seine before its extention on the left bank, the Pont au Double connecting the two buildings. In the years 1867-1878, this complex was destroyed and then rebuilt on the north side of the forecourt where the current buildings are now located.

If tradition, in reality established in the 17C, it traces the foundation of this hospital to Saint Landry, 28th bishop of Paris around 650, the first main buildings found to be assigned to the destitute, infirm and sick only date back to 829; they are located opposite a former church, the Saint-Etienne church. In 1157, letters patent mention a Hôtel-DieuSaint-Christophe, because of a dedicated chapel dedicated to this saint. Shortly after, Maurice de Sully, bishop of Paris, undertook in 1165 the reconstruction of this hospital when the old buildings were destroyed in 1195 and the new constructions completed in 1255. All these buildings, from the origin until 1878, occupy the south side of the present Parvis Notre-Dame square between Petit-Pont and Pont au Double.

In 1606, an annex to the Hôtel-Dieu, the Salle Saint-Charles, was built on the left bank. In 1684, Louis XIV donated the Petit Châtelet to the Hôtel-Dieu. The hospital then expanded along rue de la Bûcherie (current quay of Montebello). The State intervenes gradually, first through the lieutenant general of police, member of the Bureau of the Hôtel-Dieu de Paris in 1690, then through the intermediary of Necker, who created in 1781 the charges of Inspector General of Civilian Hospitals and forces houses, and King’s Commissioner for all matters relating to hospitals. Louis XIV decides, under the influence of the Parliament and the company of the Blessed Sacrament to create the general hospital in April 1656. The General Hospital should not be confused, with the nature at the same time prison, manufacturing and conventual, intended among others to beggars, vagabonds, prostitutes, debauched, and abandoned children, of the Hôtel-Dieu, which keeps its independence and its specificity from the care of poor patients. The sick of the General Hospital are systematically sent to the Hôtel-Dieu for treatment ,except venereal sick persons. The role of Madame Necker, alongside her husband, gradually changes the symbolism of the hospital: from charity, it passed to charity. But it was not until the end of the 18C that the hospital became a healing machine, where the patient was treated there and returned cured. However, it was not until the 19C that the hospital became a place for practicing medicine and science, but also a place for teaching and medical research. In 1772, a fire destroyed a large part of the Hôtel-Dieu. Other plans are then built and many modifications are made.

It was firstly the cemetery of the Innocents which welcomed the sick who died at the Hôtel-Dieu. When it was saturated, in 1348 during the Great Plague, the dead were brought to the cemetery of the hospital of the Trinity located rue Saint-Denis. In 1673, the Hôtel-Dieu and the Trinité hospital opened the Clamart cemetery on a plot acquired the previous year on the edge of the Faubourgs Saint-Victor and Saint-Marcel or Saint-Marceau, located to the south west of the square where the Clamart cross stood (now Place de l’Émir-Abdelkader) and west of the Faubourg Saint-Victor horse market.

In 1801, Parisian hospitals were given a new administrative framework: the General Council of Hospitals and Hospices Civil of Paris. On the other hand, at that time, the Hôtel-Dieu advocated the practice of vaccination. The Duke of La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt is a fervent supporter of it. Likewise, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe Laennec’s discoveries allowed to refine the diagnostic methods, auscultation and etiology of diseases. Faced with this development of medicine, the Hôtel-Dieu cannot cope!

In 1837, the extension of the Quai de la Bûcherie (now Quai de Montebello) was declared of public utility. To do this, the old Hôtel-Dieu was demolished and a new annex was built in 1840 between the new quay and rue de la Bûcherie. During the Second Empire, the buildings became cramped to cope with the evolution of medicine and the missions of hospitals, so that their replacement was decided. On May 22, 1865, the removal of the old Hôtel-Dieu and its reconstruction north of the Parvis Notre-Dame were declared of public utility. The buildings of the old Hôtel-Dieu, intended for destruction are replaced by new high constructions, from 1867 to 1878, on a plot of 22,000 square meters delimited to the north by the quai Napoléon (future quai aux Fleurs), at south by the Place du Parvis, to the west by the rue de la Cité (previously rue de la Juiverie), to the east by the rue d’Arcole, so that on the parvis or forecourt of the cathedral, the construction site of the new Hôtel-Dieu faces the facade of the administrative building of the old hospital until the destruction of the latter. The construction of the new Hôtel-Dieu is part of a large-scale urban project which profoundly changes the urban landscape of a central part of the Ile de la Cité, near the cathedral, where a whole set of streets and houses are demolished both for the development of a larger forecourt and for the opening of the hospital site.

The current buildings were built from 1866 to 1876, on the initiative of Baron Haussmann in the redeveloped perimeter of Notre-Dame Cathedral. The Third Republic completed the construction of the hospital on its current site at the end of the 19C, with the main entrance at 1, place du Parvis. It was not until 1908 that the Augustinian nuns permanently left the Hôtel-Dieu. They will find refuge in a convent located in the 14éme arrondissement of Paris, rue Maison-Dieu (now a medical building). The splendid central courtyard, which leads to a chapel, was converted in 1975 into a French garden. It is currently one of the public assistance hospitals – Paris hospitals. This hospital center depends on the Paris-Descartes Faculty of Medicine.

And there you go , I feel great to tell you about another wonderful Paris institution which we love and have even gone inside walks its hallways and enjoy the garden while doing our walks in the area. You need to do it quickly before modernity changes all the beauty of it, the Hôtel-Dieu is worth a visit.

And remember, happy travesls, good health, and many cheers to all!!!

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